Key papers on boosting
Conceptual and review papers
Below we list conceptual and review papers on boosting. Note, however, that we link to many more papers throughout this website, in particular when describing the different types of boosts (e.g., boosting cognitive competences in online environments).
General overview over boosting and how it relates to nudging
Hertwig, R., & Grüne-Yanoff, T. (2017). Nudging and boosting: Steering or empowering good decisions. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12, 973–986. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691617702496
Boosting and nudging for behavioral public policy and well-being public policy
Fabian, M., & Pykett, J. (2022). Be happy: Navigating normative issues in behavioral and well-being public policy. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 17(1), 169–182. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691620984395
See also this article in the APS Observer: “Policy in action: Navigating behavioral and well-being public policy”
When should you consider boosting?
Hertwig, R. (2017). When to consider boosting: Some rules for policy-makers. Behavioural Public Policy, 1, 143–161. https://doi.org/10.1017/bpp.2016.14
See also the following guidelines to assess whether boosting, nudging, or their combination might be more promising.
“Self-nudging”: Combining the best of nudging and boosting
Reijula, S., & Hertwig, R. (2022). Self-nudging and the citizen choice architect. Behavioural Public Policy, 6(1), 119–149. https://doi.org/10.1017/bpp.2020.5
See also this article on Behavioral Scientist: “Creating citizen choice architects”
A game-theoretic analysis of nudging and boosting
Hertwig, R., & Ryall, Michael D. (2020). Nudge versus boost: Agency dynamics under libertarian paternalism. The Economic Journal, 130, 1384–1415. https://doi.org/10.1093/ej/uez054
Boosting agency, reasoning, and resilience to manipulation in digital environments
Kozyreva, A., Lewandowsky, S., & Hertwig, R. (2020). Citizens versus the internet: Confronting digital challenges with cognitive tools. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 21, 103–156. https://doi.org/10.1177/1529100620946707
Lorenz-Spreen, P., Lewandowsky, S., Sunstein, C. R., & Hertwig, R. (2020). How behavioural sciences can promote truth, autonomy and democratic discourse online. Nature Human Behaviour, 4, 1102–1109. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-0889-7
See also the digital boosts page.
Boosting statistical literacy
Gigerenzer, G., Gaissmaier, W., Kurz-Milcke, E., Schwartz, L. M., & Woloshin, S. (2007). Helping doctors and patients make sense of health statistics. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 8, 53–96. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6053.2008.00033.x
See also the risk literacy boosts page.
Boosting healthier choices
Rouyard, T., Engelen, B., Papanikitas, A., & Nakamura, R. (2022). Boosting healthier choices. BMJ, 376, e064225. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj-2021-064225